GeorgiaTech wrote:10. In Flory-Huggins theory, the enthalpy change associated with this phenomenon is proportional to the interaction
parameter chi times kT times the lattice volume fraction phi-sub-2. This phenomenon will occur as concentration
increases beyond the Plait point, and does not occur inside the dome on a ternary phase diagram. A paradox named
for this process is related to the Gibbs paradox. The increase in entropy due to this process is equal to negative the
number of moles times R, times the sum over components of mole fraction times log of mole fraction. A magnetized
bar does this process within lab glassware. In an ideal solution, this process evolves no heat. For 10 points, name
this process which is used to make a liquid’s concentration more homogeneous, by adding an impeller or stirrer.
ANSWER: mixing [accept stirring until "stirrer" is read; anti-prompt on "dissolving" or "solvation"]
WUStL+Harvard wrote:10. Upon seeing Little Miss Muffet’s tuffet, a bystander might ask "What are you sitting on?" For 10 points each,
answer the following about how that question works:
 Many papers in this subfield of linguistics discuss English questions as a product of "Wh-movement." Linguists
in this field often diagram sentences to analyze or discover grammatical rules.
 Wh-movement is one of these processes from a namesake type of generative grammar. They alter a deep
structure like "you are sitting on what" to make a surface sentence like "What are you sitting on?"
ANSWER: transformations [accept transformational-generative grammar; anti-prompt on "movements" or
 Linguists use this symbol to mark the start of unaccepted or ungrammatical utterances, such as the pretransformed
"you are sitting on what." It also marks reconstructed words in historical linguistics.
ANSWER: asterisk [or star; or splat; accept * if someone manages to pronounce that symbol aloud]
DartmouthA wrote:13. This interaction changes the refractive index of a thin gold film on which a molecule is immobilized with a
Biacore sensor chip. Programs like Autodock simulate this interaction, which is screened by fragment-based lead
discovery. Protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry is a method used to optimize the strength of this
interaction for molecules. The major uses of isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance are to
test potential drugs for this non-enzymatic interaction, which is modeled by the MWC and Hill equations if it's
cooperative. Affinity constants quantify the strength of this interaction, which is measured in saturation experiments
that can be visualized on a Scatchard plot. For 10 points, name this physical interaction between a ligand and
ANSWER: ligand binding [or binding to a receptor; prompt on "protein-protein interaction" or "PPI" or similar
answers; anti-prompt on "protein activation" or "inhibition" or specific cases of binding; prompt on "drug activity" or
related answers; do not accept "forming a bond", "bonding", or any answer about covalent bonding]
IllinoisA+Ottawa wrote:13. One common application of the Thorpe-Ingold effect is in the acceleration of these reactions by the addition of a
geminal-dimethyl group to the reactant molecule. Concerted examples of these reactions that also have negative
entropies of activation can have conrotatory or disrotatory transition states. A radical-rearrangement of an enediyne
is one type of this reaction named for Bergmann. All exo-tet and exo-trig varieties of these reactions are favored,
according to Baldwin’s rules. When intramolecular, these reactions are fastest when reacting groups are five carbons
away. One example of this type of reaction is a condensation named for Dieckmann which forms beta-ketoesters.
For 10 points, name these reactions that form rings from carbon chains.
ANSWER: cyclizations [accept ring-forming reaction before mention; accept Bergmann cyclization; anti-prompt
on "lactonization", "electrocyclization", "cycloaddition", or "pericyclic reaction"]
To put my cards on the table: I didn't much care for "anti-prompt"ing when it was first introduced in or around ACF Regionals 2012, and I wouldn't be altogether sorry if it disappeared.BrownA+Washington+NotreDameA wrote:6. A painter from this country showed his daughter sitting on a fence with her feet dangling above the wild grass in
the painting Dragonfly. Another artist from here showed gulls flying over dark blue waters in front of two Viking
ships in Guests from Overseas. The works of one painter from this country appeals to the peasant because he paints
effect while Picasso paints cause, according to Clement Greenberg’s "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." An artist from this
country depicted a group of semi-nomadic warriors are gathered around a table laughing at the insulting letter they
are drafting for Mehmed IV, and painted eleven disheveled and exhausted men who drag a barge along the banks of
the Volga. For 10 points, name this country home to Nicholas Roerich and Ilya Repin.
ANSWER: Russian empire [or Rossiya; accept any of the following due to the time-span in which Roerich was
alive: Soviet Union; or USSR; or Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; or Soyuz Sovietskikh Sotsialisticheskikh
Respublik; anti-prompt on "Ukraine" since Repin was raised there under Russian rule]