Re: Science Packets for High School
Posted: Fri Apr 03, 2009 4:55 pm
Since this thread isn't going anywhere fast, I'll fill it with sucky science questions I wrote...
This term is used to describe two of the phases during meiosis, the first of which involves the crossing over process. It also is used to describe the phase during mitosis in which the nucleolus usually disappears and the centrosomes move away from each other. It is characterized by chromatin condensing into chromosomes. Name this mitosis stage that takes place before metaphase, generally considered the first step in cell division.
(Note to moderator: The C in Cnidarians is silent, and fungi is pronounced FUN-jigh.) This method of asexual reproduction is sometimes used by Cnidarians such as hydra or by Porifera, but it is more common in fungi and plants. It can lead to the creation of colonies if the new individuals do not leave the parent. Name this process that involves new individuals protruding from the parent.
ANSWER: Bud(ding) (accept Burgeoning)
Give the common name for the type of dinosaur first discovered by Gideon Mantell. One of the best finds was in Bernissart, Belgium. They were about thirty feet long, sixteen feet tall, and weighed five tons. Capable of running on two legs or walking on four, they had a conical thumb spike on each hand. Identify this dinosaur whose name is based on the similarity of its teeth to a particular type of lizard.
ANSWER: Iguanodon (accept Iguanadontia or Iguanadontoidea)
Some newly discovered ones are called by the acronym ARMAN. Though scientists are now finding them in a wide variety of environments, these organisms are often associated with high temperatures or high concentrations of salt. Name these prokaryotes classified by Carl Woese in a separate domain from bacteria.
ANSWER: Archaea (accept Archaebacteria and different word endings, prompt Thermophiles or Extremophiles)
This autosomal recessive disease is caused by defective genes on Chromosome 7 and affects approximately thirty thousand Americans. It usually is diagnosed by finding high levels of chloride in a sweat test. Treatment often includes anti-inflammatories and antibiotics, which lessen the damage done by poor exocrine glands. Name this disease that damages many organs, including the lungs, due to thick mucus production.
ANSWER: Cystic Fibrosis (prompt CF, accept mucoviscoidosis or mucoviscidosis)
Like a phylum of bacteria they resemble, these organelles contain grana, which are stacks of thylakoids. They are similar to mitochondria, but they release oxygen rather than use it up. Name these structures that are found only in plant cells.
When something happens, these projections take in sodium and give off potassium. In invertebrates, the thickest ones are associated with escape mechanisms, and for vertebrates many of them are covered by a layer of electrical insulation called myelin. Their purpose is to carry impulses to the next cell. Name these neuron extensions.
ANSWER: Axon(s) (prompt Nerve Fiber)
Research on it was done in the 19th Century by Charles Gerhardt, who studied anhydrides, and Felix Hoffman, who wanted to help his father. Its mechanism was described by John Vane, who showed that it decreased the production of prostaglandins. Ancient Egyptians used it by eating myrtle leaves and Greeks by willow bark. It is known to scientists as acetylsalicylic acid, and in some cases it causes Reye’s Syndrome. Name this medication used as an anti-inflammatory that reduces fevers and relieves pain.
ANSWER: Aspirin (accept Acetylsalicylic Acid before it is mentioned)
A tumor in this gland can lead to acromegaly. One of its lobes produces vasopressin, which affects the kidneys, and oxytocin. Some of the hormones produced by the other lobe affect other hormones, and their release is controlled by hypothalamic hormones. Name this gland located below the hypothalamus near the base of the skull.
ANSWER: Pituitary (Gland) (or Hypophysis)
This condition can be diagnosed using a low-dose X-ray technique or an ultrasound of the heel, and its symptoms are sometimes treated with kyphoplasty. It is sometimes caused by the use of glucocorticoids or by certain hormone disorders. To prevent it, doctors recommend weight-bearing exercises and diets that include Vitamin D and calcium, especially for women. Name this disease caused by a decrease in the amount of certain minerals in a person’s bones.
(Note to moderator: Colchicine is pronounced KOL-chi-seen.) A few years ago, scientists thought they had found this characteristic in some Argentinian rats, but most now believe that it does not exist in healthy mammals except in a few specialized cells. It does exist in a small number of fish and other animals, but it is far more common in ferns and other plants, probably existing in the majority of angiosperms. Though it often occurs naturally, it sometimes is induced in crops by the application of colchicine cream, which disrupts meiosis. Give this term that refers to having more than two homologous sets of chromosomes.
ANSWER: Polyploid(y) (accept Tetraploid(y))
One end of this bone has the greater and lesser tubercles, while the other end has the Olecranon fossa. Associated with the brachialis muscle and the ulnar nerve, it connects the ulna to the scapula. It is next to the biceps muscle in the arm. Name this large bone located in the upper arm.
ANSWER: Humerus (prompt (Upper) Arm Bone)
This common two-word phrase is used to name two different families, one of which is the Tephritidae. These animals tend to have short lives, have a liquid diet in adulthood, and breed within living plants. A particular species of the other family has been very important in biological research thanks in part to their ability to produce a lot of eggs and to their salivary glands, which have large chromosomes. This other family is Drosophilidae. Name these animals that show up when you let a banana sit around too long.
ANSWER: Fruit Fly (or Fruit Flies)
This test was first performed by Hans Berger, who used his son as a subject and did not report any results until 1929, five years into his research. Its pattern of connection is called a montage, and interpreting one requires the doctor to ignore artifacts. The test typically lasts close to a half hour, including three minutes of overbreathing followed by photic stimulation, which can exacerbate epilepsy. Name this test that involves placing electrodes on the patient’s scalp.
ANSWER: EEG (or Electroencephalogram, do not accept ECG or EKG)
This type of cancer may be linked to substances such as vinyl chloride, wood preservatives, and herbicides. It accounts for many primary bone cancers, especially those in extremities, and can arise in cartilage. It often is found in muscles, nerves, and other soft or connective tissues. Identify this cancer whose name means fleshy growth.
This Greek word is used to describe a process that includes pyknosis and karyorrhexis. It can be regulated by noxa and initiated by P53, and it is similar to autophagy and necrosis. Once the caspases are activated, the cell becomes round and the DNA becomes fragmented. Eventually, the cell becomes phagocytosed. Name this programmed cell death.
First given their six-letter name by Walter Gilbert in 1978, these are very prevalent in eukaryotes and very rare in prokaryotes. Doctors have studied them to gain a better understanding of beta-thalassemia and chronic myeloic leukemia. Scientists debate whether or not they existed in early organisms, and their discovery has influenced theories on genetic evolution—scientists now believe that evolution often occurs through gene reshuffling rather than just mutations. Name these sections of precursor RNA that are not a part of messenger RNA.
One is named Gimbernat, another is Cooper, but most are named based on their locations in the body. Some of them support organs, but most of them connect bones to other bones. Many are found in the neck, wrist, and knee. Name these structures, one of which is the anterior cruciate.
(Note to moderator: Hydrocyanic is pronounced HIGH-drogh-sigh-an-ik.) It is in a steel chamber with a device described as follows: a Geiger counter contains a tiny bit of substance that has a fifty percent chance of decaying over the course of an hour, and if that substance decays a flask of hydrocyanic acid is shattered. Quantum mechanics must describe the state of the substance using superposition, but it does not make sense to describe the state of this animal the same way. Identify this animal in a thought experiment that belonged to the Austrian physicist who imagined it.
ANSWER: Schrodinger(’s) Cat (prompt Cat)
This is a vector quantity that can have the same units as energy. It is equal to the rate of work divided by angular velocity, and it also equals the derivative of angular momentum with respect to time. It often is calculated using the formulas the moment of inertia times angular acceleration or the cross product of the radius and force vectors. Name this spinning force represented by the Greek letter tau.
ANSWER: (Net) Torque (prompt Moment)
Do not give an answer beginning with the letter A. Medical technicians often use Fluorine Eighteen, which also gives off neutrinos and oxygen, to create these particles. First postulated by Paul Dirac in 1928, some scientists thought that credit for discovering them should have gone to Blackett and Occhialini for their development of cloud chambers and their careful measurements, but credit is usually given to Carl Anderson. These particles have the charge of a proton and the mass of an electron. Name these particles that are the antimatter analogue of electrons.
One week after Orsted discovered that a compass needle was affected by electric current, this man published a paper explaining the phenomenon. A law named after him states that the path integral of a magnetic field equals the permeability times the electrical current in the loop. Name this early nineteenth century Frenchman after whom the SI unit of electric current is named.
ANSWER: (Andre-Marie) Ampere
Forces of this type have vector fields that are path independent—a common example is gravity, while a common counterexample is friction. This same term, sometimes with a different suffix, also is applied to certain quantities, and it was applied to parity inversions until the 1950s. Two quantities it applies to are linear and angular momentum. Give this term that used to apply to matter, mass, and energy separately until they were combined to account for the Theory of Relativity.
ANSWER: Conservative (accept different word endings such as Conserved)
One of the basic assumptions of general relativity is that the two types of this are equal. These types are inertial and gravitational, and no legitimate experiment has ever found a difference between them. The inertial type is equal to net force divided by acceleration, while the gravitational type varies directly with the force of gravity. Name this quantity that can be measured in slugs or grams.
ANSWER: Mass (do not accept Weight)
Also known as the Harmonic Law, for our solar system it produces the constant value three times ten to the negative nineteenth seconds squared per meters cubed. It states that period squared varies directly with the cube of the length of the semimajor axis. Name this law that is listed after laws stating that orbits are in the shape of an ellipse and that equal areas are swept out during equal times.
ANSWER: Kepler’s 3rd Law (prompt partial answers)
(Note to moderator: Goethe is pronounced GER-tuh.) One of this physicist’s critics was Goethe, who developed an alternative theory of colors one hundred years later. One of his contemporary critics was Robert Hooke, who had his own theories of the spectrum and wanted credit for theories of gravitation. Much of his best work was done at his home in Lincolnshire, but he was a professor at Cambridge for many years. The unit named after him equals a kilogram meter per second squared. Name this physicist whose three laws form the basis of classical physics.
ANSWER: (Sir Isaac) Newton
This British scientist lived from 1773 to 1829. His name is combined with LaPlace for a theory on capillary action, with Dupre for a theory on surfaces between solids and liquids, and with Helmholtz for a theory about how we are able to see. He is most famous for holding a narrow card up to a beam of sunlight and observing and explaining the colors and shadows that resulted, supporting the wave theory of light. Name this man associated with double-slit experiments.
ANSWER: (Thomas) Young
Instead of using fluids, modern ones usually use a thin disk made of an alloy of beryllium and copper. This disk is attached to mechanical levers that make it easy to see and measure small contractions. The first ones were built in the 17th Century and used water or mercury. They were made by filling a large tube and inverting it in a larger container. Measurements were made by observing how high the column of liquid was. Name these devices used for measuring air pressure.
ANSWER: Barometer(s) (or Barograph(s))
The formula for this effect uses the expression the quantity one minus cosine theta, end quantity, times Planck’s constant divided by the quantity electron mass times the speed of light. It is similar in some ways to the photoelectric effect, but it is more concerned with relativistic momentum. Name this effect based on wavelength shifts in collisions between photons and electrons as the photons bounce at various angles.
ANSWER: Compton Effect (or Compton Scattering or Compton Shift)
This law is used to justify Earnshaw’s Theorem because it can be used to show that the divergence of force fields is zero. It is easy to use it to find the strength of an electric field created by an infinite line or infinite plane of a charged conductor. When it is applied to magnetism, one side of the equation is zero because there is no such thing as a magnetic monopole. Additionally, it is closely related to Coulomb’s Law. Name this law that states that the permittivity constant times the surface integral of the electric field is equal to the enclosed charge.
ANSWER: Gauss(‘s Law)
The first one was demonstrated in 1851 and was sixty-seven meters long. They are associated with the formula 23.93 divided by the sine of theta. In 2001, Mike Town set one up at the South Pole, which, along with the North Pole, is an ideal location to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. Name this system of a weight hanging from a string that is free to rotate.
ANSWER: Foucalt(‘s) Pendulum
It is popularly considered the alpha star in the constellation that also includes Muliphen and Murzim. In 1862, it was discovered to be a binary star, and one of the stars is now known to be a white dwarf that is ten thousand times dimmer than the other one. In some cultures, its appearance marked the beginning of Summer. Name this star with a visual magnitude of negative one point four three, making it the brightest star in the night sky.
ANSWER: Sirius (accept Dog Star) (prompt Alpha Canus Major(is), but do not accept Canus Major)
This is the type of volcano of Olympus Mons and Mauna Loa. Their eruptions are not explosive but do involve large amounts of lava. They can be a few miles wide and for the most part are built out of basalt that has hardened. Name this volcano type which is neither cinder cone nor composite.
ANSWER: Shield (Volcano)
It has heavily cratered dark sections and grooved light sections. It also is surrounded by a magnetic field and a small amount of ozone. Scientists speculate that, like Europa, it has a very thin oxygen atmosphere and that, like Callisto, it has a rocky core and a mantle containing water and ice. It is the largest moon in the solar system. Name this Galilean satellite discovered the day after Europa, Callisto, and Io.
About seventy percent of them are classified as weak and last a few minutes, while about two percent of them are classified as violent and last about an hour. They often occur in the afternoon or early evening as the dry line moves East, and they typically move towards the Northeast. They are associated with cumuliform clouds and are measured by the Fujita Scale. Most of them occur in the United States, especially in a region stretching from South Dakota to Texas. Name these violent rotating columns of air.
(Note to moderator: Biome is pronounced BIGH-ome.) This biome contains cottongrass, larches, and ermines and is characterized by wide variations in temperature. Trees adapt by having little area for transpiration and by not wasting any time needing to grow leaves, and animals adapt by changing colors, migrating, and hibernating. Name this biome of the Northern hemisphere that exists just South of the tundra.
ANSWER: Taiga (or Boreal Forest) (do not accept Forest)
Its moons include Neso, Larissa, and Proteus, and its winds surpass two thousand kilometers per hour. It has two thick rings named Lassell and Galle as well as thin rings such as LeVerrier and Adams, with the rings being named after astronomers who helped discover this planet in 1846. Its orbit forms the inner boundary of the Kuiper Belt, and its largest moon is Triton. Name this planet that, after the demotion of Pluto, is now the outermost planet in our solar system.
This white supergiant probably is about one hundred thousand times as luminous as our sun, and it is expected to appear as a supernova within the next million years. Along with Vega and Altair, it forms the Summer Triangle, and it is at the top of the Northern Cross. Name this star whose name is Arabic for tail because it is located at the tail of Cygnus.
ANSWER: Deneb (accept Alpha Cygnus or Alpha Cygni before the end of the question, prompt Alpha Cygnus or Alpha Cygni at the end of the question, do not accept Cygnus)
This atmospheric layer contains noctilucent clouds, which can only be seen under certain conditions just before sunrise or after sunset. It is where most meteors burn up, and it has not been studied as much as other layers because its air pressure is too low for airplanes and too high for satellites. Its temperatures are generally about one hundred eighty Kelvins, and it is about ninety kilometers above the surface of the Earth. Name this layer between the stratosphere and thermosphere.
This quantity is very high for Enceladus, which may explain why that moon has a lower surface temperature than other moons of Saturn. There are different forms of this quantity, including the geometric type which can have a value greater than one, though most forms, including Bond, always have a value between zero and one. This value also is measured for objects on Earth and can be found by aiming a sensor up, aiming it down, and comparing the two readings. Name this quantity equal to the fraction of incident light that is reflected.
In astronomy, this term is used to describe a time selected as a point of reference. This term can also be used to describe phases the universe went through after The Big Bang. On the geologic time scale, this term is less specific than stage but more specific than period. Name this category that includes the Middle Jurassic.
This compound is made in laboratories by exposing formic acid to hot, concentrated sulfuric acid. It can also be produced when common compounds come into contact with coke. It is used to synthesize methanol and as a reducing agent. Unfortunately, this colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas binds with hemoglobin molecules much more easily than oxygen, so people exposed to heavy concentrations of it experience drowsiness, headaches, and eventually death. Name this common diatomic molecule.
ANSWER: Carbon Monoxide (prompt Carbon Oxide)
(Note to moderator: pH should be pronounced as separate letters.) This substance does not contain tartaric acid, but it is often combined with it or other acids such as lemon juice or vinegar. It can be added to water to stabilize pH levels, which is helpful for detergents. When heated, it releases carbon dioxide, which is helpful in cooking and in putting out fires. It is also good at absorbing smells. Name this chemical also known as Sodium Bicarbonate.
ANSWER: Baking Soda (accept Saleratus) (accept Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate before Sodium is mentioned) (do not accept Baking Powder)
This molecular shape shows up in carbonyl fluoride, phosgene, and formaldehyde. It has the same steric number as the bent shape, but it has no lone pairs. A simple example of it contains boron and fluoride, in which boron has the oxidation number positive three. Give the two-word name for this shape that is sometimes composed of angles which each measure one hundred twenty degrees.
ANSWER: Trigonal Planar (prompt either half of answer)
In isolation, these have a half-life of approximately ten minutes, but they are very stable where they are usually found. Their discovery paved the way for the creation of elements heavier than Uranium and the atomic bomb, and they were initially isolated by bombarding light elements with high-energy alpha particles. The only stable isotope that does not contain any of them is Protium. The Nobel Prize was awarded in 1935 to James Chadwick for identifying them. Name these subatomic particles that are slightly more massive than protons and have no electric charge.
This hydrocarbon can be created using calcium carbide, which is why it is associated with carbide lamps. It also is used in welding. It is the simplest hydrocarbon containing a triple bond, which makes it the simplest alkyne. Name this compound with chemical formula C2H2.
ANSWER: Acetylene (accept Ethyne)
For Helium Three, it could have six sections, depending on whether it differentiates between spin-ordered and spin-disordered structures and on whether it differentiates between two possible superfluids. Most of them are much simpler and show the same basic shape, though the one for water is unusual due to the negative slope of its fusion curve. Name these graphs, which generally place pressure on the y-axis and temperature on the x-axis, that show when a particular substance is a solid, liquid, or gas.
ANSWER: Phase Diagram(s)
The second derivative of this quantity with respect to temperature when pressure is held constant is equal to the opposite of enthalpy divided by absolute temperature squared. One way to calculate it is to multiply the opposite of the number of electrons per mole times the faraday constant times the electric potential. Named after the first American engineering Ph.D. recipient, it is used to decide whether or not reactions are spontaneous. Name this quantity calculated by the formula enthalpy minus temperature times entropy.
ANSWER: Gibbs (Free) Energy (or Gibbs Function) (prompt Free Energy)
These types of reactions are used to create polystyrene and can be seen in the combination of hydrogen gas with halogen gases. Investigations into the one involving DNA Polymerase won a Nobel Prize for Kary Mullis. A reaction of this type involving fission and neutrons is used in atom bombs. Name these processes in which products become reactants.
ANSWER: Chain (Reaction)
When this ion combines with carbonate, it forms salt of hartshorn. When it combines with iron sulfate, it forms Mohr’s salt. It is commonly combined with nitrate to form explosives, and it is eliminated in the urea cycle. Its charge is positive one, and its five atoms combine for a molecular mass of eighteen. Name this common ion containing nitrogen.
ANSWER: Ammonium (prompt answers including NH4, do not accept Ammonia)
This element is often used in fungicides, and it is combined with charcoal and saltpeter to make gunpowder. It is in many minerals, such as galena, pyrite, and cinnabar. Though it is odorless in its pure form, it is associated with bad odors and used to be known as brimstone. Name this element, often found in acid rain, with atomic weight 32 and atomic number 16 that is represented by a capital S.
At the beginning of the 20th Century, this scientist wrote about the effects that carbon dioxide could have on climate. The equation named after him gives the dependence of the rate constant on temperature and activation energy. In 1884, he received the lowest passing grade possible for his thesis, which concluded that electrolytes dissolved in water split into ions, but it eventually led to him receiving the Nobel Prize. Name this Swede who won the Nobel Prize in 1903.
ANSWER: (Svante) Arrhenius
This quantity is calculated by multiplying absolute temperature times the ideal gas constant times molarity times the van’t Hoff factor. The van’t Hoff factor is related to the number of moles of solute in solution per moles of solute added. It tells you how difficult it is to prevent flow across a semi-permeable membrane separating two solutions. Give this two-word phrase often represented by the Greek letter pi.
ANSWER: Osmotic Pressure
This value is close to zero for Manganese, Rhenium, Nitrogen, Magnesium, and Beryllium. It may be negative for noble gases, though it generally increases as you move right across the periodic table and is very high for Chlorine. Give the two-word phrase for the amount of energy required to remove an extra electron from an atom.
ANSWER: Electron Affinity (prompt Affinity)
This material is extracted from lichens. It typically is added to filter paper or wood pulp that has been treated with solvents. Because lichens are made of two different living organisms, they can change based on whether they are in an environment that favors one organism or the other. This particular substance can differentiate well between, for example, bleach and lemon juice. Name this common indicator that is red for acids and blue for bases.
ANSWER: Litmus (Paper) (prompt Indicator)
This one-word name is shared by two isomers. The first is a primary alcohol made by the oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that can be used in perfume. The second is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol and is made by hydrogenating a particular petroleum product. It often is used in cleaning and as a solvent and has similarities to acetone. Give the name shared by these isomers, the second of which often is used in rubbing alcohol.
Unlike in Feynman diagrams, wavy arrows, which can be labeled as internal conversions or intersystem crossings, in these represent radiationless transitions. They are equivalent in many ways to state diagrams and use horizontal lines to represent molecular electronic states. They also contain straight arrows, which typically represent phosphorescence, fluorescence, or photon absorption. Identify these diagrams named after a Polish scientist.
ANSWER: Jablonski (Diagrams)
Depending on the source, you will find one, three, or four of these rules named after a 20th Century German. The most common one can be stated as “The term with the maximum multiplicity lies lowest in energy.” It is associated with the fact that singly occupied orbitals within a system share the same spin, and it also is associated with the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Name this rule that explains how orbitals within a subshell are filled as you move across the periodic table.
ANSWER: Hund(’s Rule(s))